Summary: Women looking to reduce belly fat and blood pressure should exercise in the morning. Men who exercised in the evening showed improved metabolic and heart health, and improved overall emotional health.
source: the border
When should I include exercise in my daily schedule? For most people, the answer depends on our family’s schedule and hours, and perhaps on whether we are “larks” or “night owls.” But over the past decade, researchers have found that much more hangs over this issue than these limitations. That’s because recent findings suggest that the effectiveness of exercise depends on the time of day (time of day exercise, ETOD).
Now, a randomized controlled trial not only convincingly confirms that ETOD affects exercise efficacy, but also shows that these effects differ between types of exercise, and between women and men. The results have been published in Frontiers in Physiology.
“Here we show for the first time that for women, exercise during the morning reduces belly fat and blood pressure, in a Whereas in women, exercise in the evening increases upper body muscle tone, strength, and endurance, and improves mood and food satiety.”
“We also show that for men, evening exercise lowers blood pressure, heart disease risk, fatigue, and burns more fat, compared to morning exercise.”
New 12-week “Multimedia” training program
The authors recruited 30 women and 26 men to participate. All of them are between 25 and 55 years old, healthy, very active, non-smokers and of normal weight.
They are trained by instructors over a 12-week period, following the RISE program previously developed by Arciero. et al.: Depending on the day of the week, either 60 minutes of resistance training (R), interval running (I), exercise (S), or endurance training (E). Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday are rest days.
Participants followed a tailored meal plan with protein intake between 1.1-1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day.
Importantly, female and male participants were pre-randomized to either of the two regimens: training exclusively in the morning (60 min between 06:30 and 08:30), or in the evening (between 18:00 and 20:00).
Those assigned to exercise in the morning ate breakfast after exercise, and ate three more meals every four hours. Those assigned to evening exercise ate three meals at four-hour intervals before training, plus another meal afterwards.
At the beginning and end of the experiment, participants were comprehensively assessed for their aerobic strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, upper and lower body strength, and jumping ability. Only 16% of the 56 participants enrolled had dropped out during the 12-week trial period, exclusively because they were unable to stick to this feeding and exercise schedule.
Besides changes in the participants’ physical and metabolic parameters such as blood pressure, arterial stiffness, respiratory exchange ratio, body distribution and percentage of lipids over the course of the trial, the researchers also measured changes in relevant blood biomarkers, for example insulin, total and “good” HDL cholesterol. C-reactive protein, and IL-6. They also gave participants questionnaires to determine changes in mood and feelings of satiety from food.
Survey the overall benefits of the program
The researchers showed that all participants improved in general health and performance over the course of the trial, regardless of whether they were assigned to morning or evening exercise.
“Our study clearly demonstrates the benefits of morning and evening multimodal exercise (RISE) for improving cardiovascular health and mood health, as well as physical performance outcomes in women and men,” Archero said.
But more importantly, they also show that ETOD determines the strength of improvements in physical performance, body composition, cardiovascular health, and mood.
For example, all female participants reduced total body fat, abdominal and hip fat, and blood pressure during the trial, but these improvements were greater in the women who exercised in the morning. The men who exercised only showed reductions in total cholesterol, blood pressure, respiratory exchange ratio, and carbohydrate oxidation, with fat becoming the preferred fuel source.
Different ETOD recommendations for women and men
“Based on our findings, women interested in reducing belly fat and blood pressure, while at the same time increasing leg muscle strength, should consider exercising in the morning. However, women interested in gaining upper body muscle strength, strength and endurance , as well as improving general mood and eating, evening exercise is the preferred option,” Arcero said.
“Conversely, evening exercise is ideal for men interested in improving heart and metabolic health, as well as emotional well-being.”
Second author Stephen J. Ives, associate professor at Skidmore College, concluded: “We’ve shown that ETOD should be an important consideration for anyone, both women and men, due to its impact on the strength of exercise physiological outcomes. But regardless of ETOD, regular exercise is essential to our health.”
About this exercise Newsletter
author: Misha Dykstra
source: the border
Contact: Mischa Dykstra – Frontiers
picture: The image is in the public domain
original search: open access.
“Morning exercise reduces belly fat and blood pressure, and evening exercise increases muscular performance in women. Evening exercise increases fat oxidation and lowers blood pressure in men” by Paul J Arciero et al. Frontiers in Physiology
Morning exercises reduce belly fat and blood pressure, and evening exercises increase muscle performance in women. While evening exercise increases fat oxidation and lowers blood pressure in men
very: Given the known gender differences in response to exercise training, this study identified health and performance outcomes in separate groups of women and men adherents of different ETOD.
Methods: Thirty exercise-trained women (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m2; 42 ± 8 years) and twenty-six men (BMI = 25.5 ± 3 kg/m2; 45 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to a multimodal ETOD in the morning (0600 – 0800 h, am) or evening (1830 – 2030 h, pm) for 12 weeks and analyzed as separate groups. Baseline (Week 0) and Function (Week 12) Muscular strength (1-RM bench/leg pushups), endurance (sit-ups/push-ups) and strength (squat jumps, SJ; bench throws, BT), body composition (iDXA assessed; fat mass, FM; abdominal fat, Abfat), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), profile of moods (POMS), and dietary intake.
consequences: Twenty-seven women and twenty men completed the 12-week intervention. There are basically no differences between groups (AM vs. PM) for both the men and women groups. Important interactions in womens < 0.05) present for 1RM bench (8 ± 2 vs 12 ± 2, ∆kg), pushups (9 ± 1 vs 13 ± 2, ∆reps), BT (10 ± 6 vs 45 ± 28, W), SJ (135 ±6 vs 39 ±8, ∆W), fat mass (−1.0 ±0.2 vs −0.3 ±0.2, ∆kg), Abfat (−2.6 ±0.3 vs −0.9 ± 0.5, kg), diastolic (−10 ±1 vs. −5 ± 5, ∆mmHg) and systolic (−12.5 ± 2.7 vs. 2.3 ± 3, mmHg) BP, AM vs. PM, respectively. Important interactions in mens <0.05) present for systolic BP (−3.5 ± 2.6 vs −14.9 ± 5.1, ∆mmHg), RER (−0.01 ± 0.01 vs −0.06 ± 0.01, ∆VCO2/ voice2), fatigue (−0.8 ± 2 vs. −5.9 ± 2, ∆mm), AM vs. PM, respectively. Macronutrient intake was similar between the AM and PM groups.
conclusion: Morning (AM) exercise to reduce belly fat and blood pressure and evening (PM) exercise enhanced muscular performance in the women group. In the men group, PM increased lipid oxidation and decreased systolic blood pressure and fatigue. Thus, ETOD may be important for improving health and performance outcomes from individual exercise in physically active individuals and may be independent of macronutrient intake.
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